Crisis económica. Tercer Sector, Economía Social y Economía Solidaria en Francia

Autor:Dr. Pascal Glémain
Cargo del Autor:Enseignant-chercheur titulaire à l'ESSCA. Chercheur associé au CRESS-Lessor Université de Rennes
Páginas:89-107
RESUMEN

1. Introduction: The french "third sector": from the social economy towards a social & solidarity-based economy - 2. The french social and solidarity-based economy - 2.1. Can we explain the crises impact on the french social & solidarity-based economy? - 2.2. What are the main characteristics of the french social & solidarity-based economy? - 3. What are the crisis impacts on associative french... (ver resumen completo)

 
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1 Introduction: The french "third sector": from the social economy towards a social & solidarity-based economy

The "social economy in moving"2! Such as would be the french third sector in progress. Indeed, between the associationism (1848) and our contemporarian social & solidarity-based economy, we are in face with the "social economy" since the 1970’s, whom only juridical status characterize the different kind of its seminal families: associations, cooperatives, and mutual organizations. Under this approach, we haven’t got any consideration for citizens experiences to serve local territory, as social building areas, under the solidarity-based economy scheme. Moreover, we don’t forgotten that many social enterprises have had the ambition to become like the market-based enterprises, under an isomorphism strategy which had lived them towards an optimal size to struggle against capilastic firms (Laville, Glémain, 2010).

Nowadays, the "social economy" model seems to be more interested by his historical values about solidarity, and local development. Therefore, we think that french "third sector" will be "neither market-based or public-based", but social and solidarity-based. From charity to solidarity-

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based, the new way of french "social economy" would not be only a local "care" model against poverty growing. Can we be sure of that hypothese, in particular with a financial and Welfare-State crises?

For having some answers, we’re proceeding in two parts. In first one, we try to measure the impact of crisis on social and solidarity-based economy (among 10% of french GDP, and 10% of domestic employments). In the second one, we’ll analyse the french solidarity-based finance to serve local sustainable development model, as a new financial opportunity.

2 The french social and solidarity-based economy
2. 1 Can we explain the crises impact on the french social & solidarity-based economy3

As we have red between the lines of many papers, social & solidarity-based economy appears like an "alternative to (re)discover in time of crises" (Drapéri, 2009). To understand this movment, we propose in one side to discuss some seminal elements of "our" plural economy (Laville, 2007). In the other side, we keep a focus on the associative economy which try to accomodate both economy and solidarity.

2. 2 What are the main characteristics of the french social & solidarity-based economy4

We accept for hypothesis that we are in front of a plural econonic model. In others words, rather than an "alternative" model, we think that we have a domestic plural economic model. This triptych is setting up on articulation between a private sector (profitable, market-based model), a public sector (public companies, and national or local administrations), and a social & solidarity-based sector (a private non profitable sector). If we consider this model, we obtain the following firms distribution by sector (fig.1):

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Figure 1

[SEE ATTACHED PDF]

Source: INSEE-CLAP, 2006. Traited by National Observatory of ESS-CNCRESS. Are not considered: agricultural and fishes activities.

As we seen, the main french economic sector is the private and profitable market-based economy (86% of the all domestic firms). But, if french politicians always consider major firms which come from market-based and public sectors, we show here that 9% of national firms are really forgotten. To consider them, maybe we have to evaluate the weight of each of the three sector in employment target (fig.2):

Figure 2

[SEE ATTACHED PDF]

Source: INSEE-CLAP, 2006. Traited by National Observatory of ESS-CNCRESS. Are not considered: agricultural and fishes activities.

If one people per 10 is working in social & solidarity-based economy, the contribution at the growth employment were about 18,6% from 2005 to 2006 (CNCRES 2009, 9). The essentiel of this growth comes from associations, as we can see with the following scheme (fig.3):

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Figure 3

[SEE ATTACHED PDF]

Source: INSEE-CLAP, 2006. Traited by National Observatory of ESS-CNCRESS. Are not considered: agricultural and fishes activities.

In spite of the weight of the cooperative sector, in particular with its cooperative banking system, we can consider the french social & solidarity-based economy model like an associative model. This model is’nt a charity one. Even if many of them are organizations for helping poeple in need, french associations "care" about all "people-in-relation-with". Maybe, therefore this sector is more feminine both than the private profit-based sector, an than the public-based sector (fig.4):

Figure 4

[SEE ATTACHED PDF]

Note of lecture: 1 - cooperative firms, 2- mutual firms, 3 - Associations, 4 - Fundations, 5 - Social & solidarity-based economy, 6 - market-based and profitable private economy (without ESS), 7 - public economy. Source: INSEE-CLAP, 2006. Traited by National Observatory of ESSCNCRESS. Are not considered: agricultural and fishes activities.

More precisely, we can show here, how we can distinguish social and solidarity-based activities in one side (85,1%), and the charities activities in the other side (14,9%) (tab.1):

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Table 1: Number of adhesions which are declared near the National Associations Repertory, 2010. Ventilation by theme, per cent (%)

Culture and artistic activities 57 128 22,6%
Sports, outdoor activities 36 520 14,4%
Leisure clubs and relationships 19 961 7,9%
Sociocultural Action 15 355 6,0%
Interventions sociales 5 192 2,0%
Voluntary development actions 11 478 4,5%
Families and services for elder poeple 3 226 1,3%
Health 9 200 3,6%
Education, formation 14 873 5,9%
Protection of economic interests 9 910 3,9%
Employment Help, local development, economic solidarity 6 556 2,6%
Environment 16 420 6,5%
Community groups 16 420 6,5%
Housing 302 0,1%
Others activities 37 850 14,9%
SUM of inscriptions 254 029 100%

Source: inspired by the French Official Journal. Statistic anlysis by « R & S » (2010).

If we are in front of more associations with a main social activity, so : could we say that french social economy is itself in crises?

3 What are the crisis impacts on associative french sector?

As we can see in the following table (tab.2), main french associative firms are concerned by: teaching activities whom private schools under state’s responsibility, activities to promote precaution against deviance health behavior, medico-social housing, and social action without housing activities. Therefore, french associative sector hasn’t known the effect of crises, since 2008.

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Table 2: Répartition des associations par secteur d’activité

Secteurs d’activité (selon les libellés INSEE) Etablissements Salariés Masse salariale
Enseignement 10,6% 12,2% 12,4%
Activités sportives 17,4% 3,8% 3,0%
Activités liées à l’emploi 0,8% 2,1% 1,2%
Activités humaines pour la santé 2,1% 7,3% 11,0%
Hébergement médico-social 5,6% 18,0% 20,5%
Action sociale sans Hébergement 12,9% 29,6% 23,7%
Activités récréatives et de loisirs 1,4% 0,5% 0,4%
Activités culturelles 11,8% 3,5% 3,0%
Activités d’hébergement, de restauration et de tourisme 3,7% 2,2% 2,2%
Recherche-développement scientifique 0,5% 0,4% 0,6%
Agriculture, élevage, chasse pêche 0,7% 0,4% 0,3%
Autres activités 7,5% 6,3% 8,4%
Activités des Organisations non classées ailleurs 25,0% 13,7% 13,3%
Total 100,0% 100,0% 100,0%

Source: ACOSS-URSSAF et MSA. Traitement R & S, 2010.

Since 2008, only 5 per cent of french association were falling down (tab.3), in particular in cultural and leisures sectors. In other words, we can accept the following hypothesis such as the french social economy sector is a more a para-public health and medico-social sector, than a charity-based sector to struggle against sustainable poverty.

Table 3: The falling down activities between 2008 and 2009

Secteur d’activité Pourcentage de permanence Pourcentage de disparitions
Enseignement 95,7% 4,3%
Activités sportives 95,1% 4,9%
Activités liées à l’emploi 96,6% 3,4%
Activités pour la santé humaine 97,1% 2,9%
Hébergement médico-social 98,0% 2,0%
Action sociale sans hébergement 96,3% 3,7%
Activités récréatives et de loisirs 93,5% 6,5%

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Secteur d’activité Pourcentage de permanence Pourcentage de disparitions
Activités culturelles 93,1% 6,9%
Autres 94,8% 5,2%
Ensemble associations 94,8% 5,2%

Source: ACOSS-URSSAF - Traitement R&S, 2010. Lecture: Among french associations which carry employments, only 4.3% have disappeared between 2008 and 2009.

For those associations which are still alive, their workforce has kwown a real growth about +1.3%. In the same time, their size is gone from 11.3 salary to 11.4 salary by firm, in average (R&S, 2010). And, the annual average wage by head has followed the same trend...

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