Un diccionari jurídic pot passar de sexista a inclusiu?: El 'Dictionary of Legal Terms' com a cas d'interès

Autor:Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Pàgines:117-132
RESUMEN

El sexisme lingüístic pot trobar-se en qualsevol text, fins i tot en els que semblen neutres. Un clar exemple d’això són els diccionaris, ja que mostren un determinat reflex de la societat mitjançant diversos mecanismes, com la mateixa selecció d’entrades i definicions. Aquest article analitza el Dictionary of Legal Terms (DLT), d’Enrique Alcaraz Varó, Brian Hughes i Miguel Ángel Campos, i posa de manifest els mecanismes esmentats. A més a més, un estudi comparatiu de les 10 edicions del DLT ens permet observar l’evolució al llarg dels anys del tractament del gènere en un diccionari concret i determinar fins a quin punt s’ha tingut en compte el sexisme que hi ha implícit en el llenguatge, tant en el moment en què el diccionari es va escriure per primer cop com a les successives modificacions posteriors. Finalment, s’ofereixen algunes alternatives, l’ús de les quals pot ajudar a evitar que s’inclogui llenguatge sexista als diccionaris

 
CONTENIDO
CAN A LEGAL DICTIONARY GO FROM SEXIST TO INCLUSIVE?:
THE DICTIONARY OF LEGAL TERMS AS A CASE OF POINT
Eivor Jordà Mathiasen*
Abstract
Linguistic sexism can be present in any text, even in those that appear to be neutral. One clear example of this is
dictionaries, as they exhibit a certain image of our society through multiple mechanisms, such as the selection of both
Dictionary of Legal Terms
and Miguel Ángel Campos, and through this analysis the aforementioned mechanisms are highlighted. Furthermore,
       
         
      

in dictionaries.

UN DICCIONARI JURÍDIC POT PASSAR DE SEXISTA A INCLUSIU?:
EL DICTIONARY OF LEGAL TERMS COM A CAS D’INTERÈS
Resum


     
  
   
       



*
mariaeivor.jorda@universidadeuropea.es

Recommended citationThe Dictionary of Legal
Terms as a case of point. .
Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Can a legal dictionary go from sexist to inclusive?: the dictionary...
Revista de Llengua i Dret, Journal of Language and Law, núm. 70, 2018 118
Summary










References
Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Can a legal dictionary go from sexist to inclusive?: the dictionary...
Revista de Llengua i Dret, Journal of Language and Law, núm. 70, 2018 119
1 Introduction

 
           
    
       
      




 
language contributes most crucially to the process of the generating ideology.

        
              
   

    

     




    

       

            
  
             

            


  
         

slaves of their time as mere use notaries


Dictionary of Legal
TermsÁngel

  

linguistic sexism through mechanisms such as entry selection and ordering, the use of generic masculine,
 
regarding treatment of gender, it is also undeniable that some important aspects of linguistic sexism have not

Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Can a legal dictionary go from sexist to inclusive?: the dictionary...
Revista de Llengua i Dret, Journal of Language and Law, núm. 70, 2018 120


kinship relations, family ties, marriage, divorce, sexual offences, prostitution, abortion, sexual relationships,
       



Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Can a legal dictionary go from sexist to inclusive?: the dictionary...
Revista de Llengua i Dret, Journal of Language and Law, núm. 70, 2018 121
 
both sections.
   


    
       
        
             




  



spheres and aspects of life. One such example in dictionaries is the disproportionate use of lemmas relating to



marital status, certain degrees and professions, physical features, moral attributes and obscenities.
Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Can a legal dictionary go from sexist to inclusive?: the dictionary...
Revista de Llengua i Dret, Journal of Language and Law, núm. 70, 2018 122



    



  
sexual and partner relationships.
2 Forms of linguistic sexism in dictionaries
2.1 Concealing women
           





    
                 
  

2.1.1 Generic masculine
       
adjectives being presented exclusively in the masculine form. Nevertheless, the masculine as generic in
           
          
terms such as “alcahueta” and “alcahuete”, “” and “buscona”, “esposa” and “esposo” or “” and




     
” for “judge” or “ 
  
  ” for “adulterer”, “adulteress”, “ ” for
“businessman”, “       ” for “testatrix”
and “   
                 
    
   

                

        

           
         
  ”, “”, “empresario”, “”, “”, “”, “”, “ministro”,
Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Can a legal dictionary go from sexist to inclusive?: the dictionary...
Revista de Llengua i Dret, Journal of Language and Law, núm. 70, 2018 123
” or “”.            

” or “
     
 
professional sphere could come to be seen as normal.
     
          
o/a      


         
 





        
     
neutrality
      

   
   
               
 
feminine forms offered. Curiously, the feminine forms of both these lemmas in English and also of their


2.1.2 Other ways of excluding women from dictionaries


 
the generic masculine terms are used that refer exclusively to men (such as “  

              


alimento[s]   
        
         



         
     
              

Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Can a legal dictionary go from sexist to inclusive?: the dictionary...
Revista de Llengua i Dret, Journal of Language and Law, núm. 70, 2018 124


another one for the feminine (for example, “” and “
     
         
as “      
    empresario, hombre
” and “     
esposa” and “esposo” or “” and “
o/a


and the feminine. For example, in the articles for “” and “buscona

    

            
        


              

2.2 Focusing on women
               

       

     
made use in this article of the term generic feminine
   
as the main player is so greatly enhanced that men are emphatically removed from the sphere of action


     

2.2.1 Generic feminine
               





  
maternity


      
(“bear”, “maternal”, “maternity”, “maternity leave”, “surrogacy”, “surrogate mother”, in English, and “
”, “claustro materno”, “”, “”, “”, “”, “
Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Can a legal dictionary go from sexist to inclusive?: the dictionary...
Revista de Llengua i Dret, Journal of Language and Law, núm. 70, 2018 125
   ”, “”, “materno”, “”, “”, “”, “parto
and “permiso por alumbramiento          

claustro materno” or “parto
        
to men (“paternal”, “paternity” in English, and “”, “”, “”, “”,
”, “paterno  ” or “padre ” are



  
               
    


  



      







comercio sexual” and “prostituirse
prostíbulo”, “prostituta” and “”.

             
   ” “ ”, “ ”,
lupanar” and “prostibulo          

          
alcahueta  

ramera
    alcahueta” disappeared from the

2.2.2 Other ways of focusing on women in dictionaries
  
       
       
        
               



Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Can a legal dictionary go from sexist to inclusive?: the dictionary...
Revista de Llengua i Dret, Journal of Language and Law, núm. 70, 2018 126


            
          
Examples illustrating articles on marriage separation paint a clear picture of traditional marriage. Firstly,
       alimento[s]






 

                 
               
 




        


    
Nevertheless, examples of use can paint a very clear picture of certain, generally sexist, stereotypes.
acoso

            


La insistencia en referencias
”.
Looking beyond the examples of use, indirect sexism may arise in any section of the dictionary, particularly
   

relaciones sexuales”. 
              
         
     
 ” once again assigns the active role to the man and the





         


Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Can a legal dictionary go from sexist to inclusive?: the dictionary...
Revista de Llengua i Dret, Journal of Language and Law, núm. 70, 2018 127

current usage.
3 Alternatives


  

     




possibility actually becomes a necessity.
        
       
               
    

 




    
        


                



    
and, more importantly, by avoiding the depiction of clearly discriminatory situations in the dictionary.
        
                
  
     
        

 
  
as neutral hyperonyms.

generic feminine
         
           

        
      
Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Can a legal dictionary go from sexist to inclusive?: the dictionary...
Revista de Llengua i Dret, Journal of Language and Law, núm. 70, 2018 128

      
or another should not be determined by undesirable social stereotypes. Lastly, special care should be taken
         

4 Conclusions

           

   
      


   
        
social values. Obviously, creators of dictionaries are not the creators of language as they are tied to an
           
meaning is instrumental in the transmission of ideology.

    








     
         
               
alimento[s]
 


alcahueta”, have
      
   
   
“these issues of sexism and androcentrism in dictionaries should not be discounted as peripheral concerns to
the lexicographical project at large”.
performativity
    




         
    

Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Can a legal dictionary go from sexist to inclusive?: the dictionary...
Revista de Llengua i Dret, Journal of Language and Law, núm. 70, 2018 129
References
AlcArAz VAró  Hugues         

AlcArAz VAróHuguescAmpos, Miguel Ángel. 

AlVAr ezquerrA,           


Andrés cAstellAnos           


BengoecHeA BArtolomé     


BenHAmou

Burry, precHAl
Butler, Judith. 
Butler, Judith. Excitable
Butler, Judith. 
cAlero Fernández    


cAlero Fernández
 
cAlero Fernández, Mª Ángeles.

cAlero Fernández, 
  

cAmeron, Deborah. 
cowie,    


desmet, Pieter; rooryck, Johan; swiggers, Pierre.

 
d’oriA, Domenico. 
FArinA,              
             

Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Can a legal dictionary go from sexist to inclusive?: the dictionary...
Revista de Llengua i Dret, Journal of Language and Law, núm. 70, 2018 130
FisHmAn          
             Cultures,

ForgAs Berdet
ForgAs Berdet
. 
ForgAs Berdet
ForgAs Berdet

ForgAs Berdet             

gArcíA meseguer, Álvaro. 
gArcíA meseguer

gouws


grAHAm            

guerrero sAlAzAr
           

HAmpAresHispania núm. 
Hernández sáncHez  lópez mArtínez           

HornscHeidt, 


Hennessy,    
           

Hoey 
        

instituto de lA mujer. 
jAmmes        
Portugês
jiménez ríos,      
             
(pp. 
Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Can a legal dictionary go from sexist to inclusive?: the dictionary...
Revista de Llengua i Dret, Journal of Language and Law, núm. 70, 2018 131
kAHAnekAHAne,
 Lexicographers 
kim      


krAmArAetreicHler,russo
lledó cunill


lledó cunill            


mArco lópez      
  

mArco lópez   
 Lo femenino y lo masculino en el

mediAVillA cAllejA
Lo femenino y lo masculino en el ‘Diccionario

mediAVillA cAllejA            
En femenino y en masculino 

mills
moon       English Language
Research núm
moon, 
  

ogilVie,              

olmedo rojAs           


olmedo rojAs             


olmedo rojAs
 

Eivor Jordà Mathiasen
Can a legal dictionary go from sexist to inclusive?: the dictionary...
Revista de Llengua i Dret, Journal of Language and Law, núm. 70, 2018 132
pAscuAl olAguíBel        
(pp.

riBero ortiz
  

riBero ortiz
      El

ruBio pérez
Lo femenino y lo masculino en el ‘Diccionario

russell             
Feminist Dictionaries”. 
sAu sáncHez
VArgAs mArtínez
        

Violi, Patricia. 
wierzBickA,            
    (pp.

williAms
Kingdom and England”. 
wHitcut, 
from the International Conference on Lexicography at Exeter    
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