Teresa Asunción Jiménez París
590 Revista Crítica de Derecho Inmobiliario, N.º 777, págs. 589 a 621
la redacción que tenga el precepto legal base de la cláusula, con posterioridad a
efectos a la redacción dada al artículo693.2 LEC por Ley 5/2019
remite a su vez al art.24 de esta norma).
ABSTRACT: The early maturity clause of the mortgage loan constitutes the foun-
dation of the foreclosure and allows the real mortgage action to be exercised by the
creditor on the mortgaged asset. Based on the initial wording of artículo693.2 LEC,
the clauses included as a general condition for contracting real estate loans to con-
sumers allowed the debtor to lose the benefit of the term for non-payment of a single
repayment installment. These clauses were considered abusive by the jurisprudence
of the Court of Justice of the European Union (STJUE of March 14, 2013) as it did
not determine the loss of said benefit based on the amount and duration of the debt.
Law 1/2013 amended artículo693.2 LEC in the sense of allowing the validity of the
clauses in case of stipulation for the non-payment of three monthly installments.
The financial entities adjusted their praxis to said legal provision, pretending that the
foreclosure would continue in cases of non-compliance with three or more monthly
installments, even if the contract contained the said abusive clause. This solution
was accepted by the Supreme Court considering that despite the nullity of the clause,
the specific exercise of the anticipated maturity had to be evaluated (that is, if it
adjusted to the legal minimum and the parameters indicated by the STJUE of March
14 of 2013), as this could result in the benefit of the consumer. The question was
referred for a preliminary decision by the Supreme Court to the Court of Justice
of the European Union, specifically, on the application of the blue pencil test and,
subsidiary, on the application of artículo693.2 LEC to allow an integration of the
contract in favor of the consumer. The Court considers that if the mortgage loan
contract cannot subsist without the early expiration clause and its total nullity
entails procedural consequences particularly harmful to the consumer, an integra-
tion of the contract proceeds through the wording that has the legal precept base
of the clause, after the conclusion of the contract. The STS of September 11, 2019
refers for this purpose to the wording given to artículo693.2 LEC by Law 5/2019
(wording that refers in turn to artículo24 of this rule).
PALABRAS CLAVE: Vencimiento anticipado. Hipoteca. Cláusula abusiva. In-
tegración del contrato.
KEY WORDS: Early maturity clause in the mortage. Abusive clause. Contract
SUMARIO: I. INTRODUCCIÓN. LA PROBLEMÁTICA DEL VENCIMIENTO
ANTICIPADO.—II. DOCTRINA MANTENIDA POR EL TRIBUNAL SUPREMO Y
VOTOS PARTICULARES DEL MAGISTRADO ORDUÑA MORENO: 1. sEntEncia
«ratio decidendi». B) Voto Particular del magistrado Orduña Moreno. 2. sEntEncia
dendi». B) Voto Particular del magistrado Orduña Moreno.—III. DOCTRINA DEL
TRIBUNAL DE JUSTICIA DE LA UNIÓN EUROPEA SOBRE LOS EFECTOS