Equality, non-discrimination and work-life balance

Páginas:1-176
RESUMEN

The Comparative Labor Law Dossier (CLLD) in this issue 2/2016 of IUSLabor is dedicated to equality, non-discrimination and work-life measures. We have had the collaboration of internationally renowned academics and professionals from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, Canada and the United States.

 
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IUSLabor 2/2016
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COMPARATIVE LABOR LAW DOSSIER
EQUALITY, NON-DISCRIMINATION AND WORK-LIFE BALANCE
Abstract
The Comparative Labor Law Dossier (CLLD) in this issue 2/2016 of IUSLabor is
dedicated to equality, non-discrimination and work-life measures. We have had the
collaboration of internationally renowned academics and professionals from Belgium,
France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican
Republic, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, Canada and the United States.
El Comparative Labor Law Dossier (CLLD) de este número 2/2016 de IUSLabor está
dedicado a la igualdad, no discriminación y conciliación de la vida laboral, familiar y
personal. Hemos obtenido la participación de académicos y profesionales de prestigio
de Bélgica, España, Francia, Grecia, Italia, Portugal, Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Costa
Rica, México, Perú, República Dominicana, Uruguay, Canadá y Estados Unidos.
Título: Comparative Labor Law Dossier. Igualdad, no discriminación y conciliación de
la vida laboral, familiar y personal
Keywords: equality, non-discrimination, work-life balance, leave of absence, maternity
leave, paternity leave, right to accommodation.
Palabras clave: igualdad, no discriminación, conciliación de la vida laboral, familiar y
personal, permisos, permiso maternidad, permiso paternidad, derecho a adaptar la
distribución del tiempo de trabajo.
IUSLabor 2/2016, p. 1-176, ISSN 1699-2938
IUSLabor 2/2016
2
Summary
1. Equality, non-discrimination and work-life balance in Belgium, by Sarah
De Groof and Miet Vanhegen
2. Egalité, non-discrimination et équilibre entre vie professionnelle et vie
personnelle en France, pour Clara Gandin
3. Equality, non-discrimination and work-life balance in Greece, by
Panayota Petroglou
4. Equality, non-discrimination and work-life balance in Italy, by Rosita
Zucaro
5. Equality, non-discrimination and work-life balance in Portugal, by Maria
do Rosário Palma-Ramalho and Teresa Coelho Moreira
6. Igualdad, no discriminación y conciliación en España, por María Amparo
Ballester Pastor
7. Igualdad, no discriminación y conciliación en Argentina, por María del
Carmen Piña
8. Igualdad, no discriminación y conciliación en Brasil, por Eduardo
Pragmácio Filho y Helena Stela Sampaio
9. Igualdad, no discriminación y conciliación en Chile, por Carmen Elena
Domínguez y Romina Urzúa Arce
10. Igualdad, no discriminación y conciliación en Costa Rica, por Isabel C.
Jaramillo Arango y Alexander Godínez Vargas
11. Igualdad, no discriminación y conciliación en México, por Josefa
Montalvo Romero
12. Igualdad, no discriminación y conciliación en el Perú, por Cecilia
Guzman-Barrón Leidinger y Maria Katia Garcia Landaburu
13. Igualdad, no discriminación y conciliación en Pepública Dominicana, por
Fernando A. Roedán H. y Javier A. Suárez A.
14. Igualdad, no discriminación y conciliación en Uruguay, por Leticia
Iglesias Merrone
15. Equality, non-discrimination and work-life balance in Canada, by Eric
Tucker and Alec Stromdahl
16. Equality, non-discrimination and work-life balance in the United States,
by Ann C. McGinley
IUSLabor 2/2016
3
EQUALITY, NON-DISCRIMINATION AND WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN
BELGIUM
Sarah De Groof and Miet Vanhegen
Doctoral researcher and researcher at KU Leuven, Institute for Labour Law
Introduction
In the last quarter of 2015, the employment rate in Belgium was equal to 61,8%: 58,3%
for women and 65,2% for men. The unemployment rate, however, is higher among men:
8,1% of women who were searching for a job did not have one, versus 9.3% of men.
1
Based on figures for 2014, 24,1% of the total employed work force worked part time in
Belgium (compared to 20,4% in the EU-28): 41,4% of the female versus 9,1% of the male
employed workforce (compared to 32,8% and 9,9% in the EU-28).
2
Women have on
average 3 hours less per week for rest and leisure compared to man.
3
Women taking care
of children are less likely to work then women without children. For man, the reverse is
true: they are more likely to work if there are children.
4
Parental leave is mostly taken by
women, although women are catching up: in 2002 only 9% of all employees taking
parental leave were man compared to 28% in 2012. Men especially use this parental leave
to reduce their working time by 1/5th.
5
Women more often work in the services sector.
6
Globally, the gender pay gap in Belgium tends to decrease. According to the latest reports
on the gender pay gap, women earn approximately 9% less per hour than men. At the end
of the ’90, this number was still 19%. Therefore, Belgium does better than the European
average of 16%. However, this only entails the hour based pay gap. When the pay gap is
calculated on an annual basis and thus the effect of part time employment which is
typically overrepresented by women is taken into account, the pay gap is much bigger
(22%) and does not decrease, on the contrary, it remained high over the last few years. It
is important to emphasis both numbers, since the uneven distribution in working time is
not gender neutral. The fact that women are more likely to work part time, makes a big
part of the inequality on the labour market.
7
1
http://statbel.fgov.be/nl/statistieken/cijfers/arbeid_leven/werk/trimestrieel/.
2
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-
explained/index.php/Labour_market_and_Labour_force_survey_(LFS)_statistics
3
http://igvm-iefh.belgium.be/sites/default/files/downloads/60%20-
%20Gender%20and%20income_ENG.pdf, 261.
4
http://statbel.fgov.be/nl/modules/pressrelease/statistieken/arbeidsmarkt_en_levensomstandigheden/pres_
de_38_des_personnes_occupees_combinent_un_emploi_avec_des_enfants_de_moins_de_15_ans.j sp
5
http://www.rosadoc.be/joomla/index.php/kwesties/arbeid-zorg/vlaamse-cijfer
6
http://www.rosadoc.be/joomla/index.php/kwesties/arbeid-zorg/vlaamse-cijfers
7
http://igvm-iefh.belgium.be/nl/activiteiten/arbeid/loonkloof/stand_van_zaken_in_belgie

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