Dalla 'Carta della Foresta' al 'deficit ecologico' del costituzionalismo

Autor:Michele Carducci
Cargo:Professore ordinario di Diritto costituzionale comparato nell'Università del Salento-Lecce, Italia
Páginas:31-44
RESUMEN

Esistono apposite garanzie costituzionali di tutela degli equilibri dell’ecosistema terra? Quali sono? Come operano? Qual è la loro funzione in un contesto mondiale di "deficit ecologico"? L’articolo discute la complessità costituzionale di questi interrogativi, alla luce anche delle riflessioni di filosofia politica di Peter Sloterdijk. Il "deficit ecologico" richiede interventi drastici non solo di contenimento delle emissioni inquinanti, ma soprattutto di recupero delle condizioni ecosistemiche necessarie appunto all’equilibrio ecologico del pianeta. Nella prospettiva della considerazione del "deficit ecologico" del pianeta, si osserva che gli strumenti del diritto costituzionale contemporaneo, fondati sulla logia "et-et" della ponderazione e del compromesso democratico, possono rivelarsi insufficienti o contraddittori al fine di produrre risposte adeguate alle sfide della sopravvivenza dell’umanità. La democrazia si basa sul consenso e quindi sugli interessi e bisogni che spingono il voto e le proiezioni sul futuro. Inoltre, la democrazia opera esclusivamente a livello nazionale, mentre i problemi ecologici sono globali e vanno al di là della contingenza degli interessi e delle aspettative. Pertanto, discutere dei problemi costituzionali di garanzia dell’ecosistema terra significa in primo luogo discutere del futuro della democrazia di fronte alla distruzione del pianeta terra, provocata dall’azione umana e dalle sue legittimazioni anche costituzionali.

 
CONTENIDO
DALLA “CARTA DELLA FORESTA” AL “DEFICIT ECOLOGICO” DEL COSTITUZIONALISMO
Michele Carducci*
Riassunto
Esistono apposite garanzie costituzionali di tutela degli equilibri dell’ecosistema terra? Quali sono? Come operano?
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        
richiede interventi drastici non solo di contenimento delle emissioni inquinanti, ma soprattutto di recupero delle
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     
discutere del futuro della democrazia di fronte alla distruzione del pianeta terra, provocata dall’azione umana e dalle
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FROM THE “CHARTER OF THE FOREST” TO THE “ECOLOGICAL DEFICIT” OF CONSTITUTIONALISM
Abstract
Are there any special constitutional guarantees to protect the balance of the Earth’s ecosystem? What are they? How
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      
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  



      

         

Citazione consigliata:            
catalana de dret públic
Michele Carducci

 32
Sommario




Michele Carducci

 33
1 Ecosistema senza “garante”?

    

            
   
              della Costituzione
italiana1   
suggestiva e pervasiva dai testi del cosiddetto “3 
principio di “non regressione ambientale
e di “ 5   
 
normative, in una utile ricognizione comparata         

     
 all’interno di una declinazione dei poteri e delle funzioni costituzionali, persistente nella sua
impronta esclusivamente antropocentrica9          
dentro o contro           in sé11
             
      antropocene

 Estado
constitucional ecológico e democracia sustentada

      

 , in 


  El principio de no regressión ambiental en el derecho comparado latinoamericano

 , Encuentro mundial
      
paper
 , in 
    
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              

  

diritto
 PARKLimits to Anthropocentrism:
toward an Ecocentric Organization Paradigm?  
 
Law
  
Regole del parco umano
   
   
        
fundamental ao ambiente               


Michele Carducci

 34
passo all’ “Eremocene


              
distruttiva dell’ “antropocene13, al ripensamento della Rule of Law in funzione non tanto della salvaguardia

cambiamenti climatici
costituzionali disegnate intorno alla considerazione dei soli interessi umani15
              
            
domanda di apertura
Anche tentativi recenti, come quelli andini di aprire i tribunali costituzionali al pluralismo delle tradizioni
giuridiche, nel loro rapporto con la natura, o di istituzionalizzare una “ 19,
quale meccanismo di rappresentazione dell’ecosistema in prospettiva olistica, non sembrano emanciparsi,

,
capace di incidere sui persistenti processi di accumulazione privata delle risorse naturali e della vita che
hanno profondamente distorto accesso alle risorse e produzione dei beni vitali

  e di questa rilevanza sembra aver acquisito consapevolezza il
  , al quale partecipa chi scrive,
    
utopia costituzionale
       La
 

 
  , 1,

    ,

 
     
              
      

si veda emblematicamente    , published
  

 
multiplicidad
 ,
in 
 
 
   

                
,

 
Michele Carducci

 35
dell’ecosistema
            
umana

Soft Law
o degli Standard, cara ai fautori del 
 nazionali,
      
              anche 


           
comprovata, oltre che da studi autorevolissimi  
              
cosiddetti “di Limburgdi Maastricht
costituzionalizzazione del “ 
  


     31 
promuovere una    


  
             
ecologico      
regole di controllo sulle  in termini di adeguamento necessario della loro  ad una
interesse superiore

    
 
 
          
  
              
constitucional
  
    

  sta per    
    
  
 

  andino dalla

    

Michele Carducci

 36
sulla “


  

che nessun trattato, compresi i trattati commerciali, deve prevalere sulla “
in quanto “interesse superiore
interesse superiore
  
terra


  Authority di regolazione internazionale dei diritti della natura nella disciplina del diritto
internazionale Authority    
           
ispirano la stessa azione di UN Harmony with Nature
             
dell’ecosistema terra
   
       
             
internazionale dell’ecosistema terra 

            
collabora, con studi e pareri delle Authority
internazionale         Ranking
internazionale delle imprese sugli indicatori di rispetto e attuazione della “
terra
       dovrebbe essere quello di elaborare un  su
       

              
    humus comune ai regimi
    

dell’ecosistema terra33



      
procedurali, di democrazia35
 
   , in  
Socialismo
 

 , Bologna, il Mulino,

Michele Carducci

 37

            
  Ausnahmezustand o Notzustand, ma resta il fatto che
      
considerata

            
 

39 
compreso anche, ma non solo, l’essere umano

, nell’alveo del tema
     
umane future, si rivela un errore epistemico, prima ancora che

             
ammessa e praticata per qualsiasi altra forma di debito     
del debito in termini di scambio di interessi umani, eventualmente legittimati dal consenso
            


ancora che doverosa e necessaria

di ritorno ecosistemico non sono solo umani
Nature, fu pubblicato il pionieristico studio 

     

 

 
 capitalismo,

 
       
    

 La catena del tempo
      

 Le passioni e gli interessi
    , in Enciclopedia delle scienze
sociali
 
       
    

 
Michele Carducci

 38
  
Ecological Economics

  
valutazioni quantitative agli innumerevoli e intrecciati servizi, che gli ecosistemi offrono all’esistenza non


              

   


                 
l’ecosistema non è altro che il rapporto tra singolo soggetto vivente e the Rest
                 
51

        
      

  

qualitativa del benessere, a tutti i livelli di scala, obiettivo dichiarato di governi e istituzioni di tutto il mondo,
richiede necessariamente un proporzionale incremento della domanda di sfruttamento di quel rapporto, a cui,

  

    
     
    

     
formalizzata nel  53 proprio per rendere evidente l’inclusione dell’essere umano

di rigenerarle
        55, l’ “impronta
     
   

 El ordenamiento ecológico del territorio,

 
          

53 
  

 
Michele Carducci

 39
   
    

Nomos umano descritto

Nomos
       
le Costituzioni e altri atti imperativi, a seguito del “    
equilibrio di bilancio          
     
dei divieti e di superamento dei limiti, in   
futuro rappresentato come “



umano per la crescita, su possibili 

              

         

Ma allora che fare di fronte a questo “59 delle Costituzioni?
Anche questa è una domanda insolita per il diritto costituzionale
           
    prima legge della termodinamica culturale      



   
  
                  

 
               
costituzionale
 

59 Ammesso che si tratti solo di un problema di “
collasso  , in 

        
      
          
proposte di “Human Welfare 

 
Michele Carducci

 40
è vero, come scriveva uno dei padri del diritto costituzionale moderno, Hobbes, che il “comune benessere
nascerebbe solo dal “libero esercizio
Effettivamente, oggi, le decisioni costituzionali replicano, di fatto, il paradigma economico dell’, a
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


              

, non certo la sua descrizione come


  
            
sono “
ispira esclusivamente a un’ “antropotecnica  


 
della specie umana da tutte le minacce esterne
come “era del bilanciamento         
ad hoc


diritti e interessi

rinuncia a incidere, in nome della contingenza, sul “
Überwindung
             
    ,
quando osservava che le tecniche giuridiche funzionali alla logica della contingenza e dello scambio,
  al ,

  
nell’aumento vertiginoso del “
 
 

 
 
                 

        
       

 
moderno 
 
Michele Carducci

 41
tutti  

Con l’            
            
porrebbero, di conseguenza, su due assi verticali e paralleli, destinati a non incontrarsi

            

              
   
status        

Bisogni elementari come il cibo, l’abitazione, la legna per riscaldarsi, la caccia e il pascolo per nutrirsi,
                
       

       
        comune non è , ma uso 
commoner      
       




        
      
 
  accesso comune
      
di due pratiche “
 ma nella
   locus neminis locus communis, luogo appunto del comune, libero
        
            locus
communis
 


         
multinaturalismo  
 multicultarilismo      
    

La razón neoliberal
 

          
               
Ostrom
 , in 
Michele Carducci

 42
-
sivamente ridimensionandosi, contribuendo a sbilanciare il codice genetico del costituzionalismo moderno

locus communis

Enclosures e con la progressiva disciplina repressiva dei “furti di

l’evento viene denunciato come dimostrazione della insensatezza e della profonda ingiustizia di qualsiasi
Quando una legge denomina furto un’azione che non

      
      


le Enclosures           

  No scutage not aid shall be imposed on our
      
      
Enclosures, a partire dal primo periodo Tudor sino al compimento della rivoluzione industriale, a tradurre
       
  Enclosures   
garanzia “No taxation without Representation


       
 Enclosures  



Enclosures

competizione per l’appropriazione dei beni, implicita nella Magna Carta 
     
dilemma del cacciatore      
 
       
 
 
, 
 

 

 

  

Michele Carducci

 43
immediati, di tutti nel “locus communis  

  
molto tempo dopo dal suo nascere, soprattutto al cospetto del passaggio dal paradigma organicistico a quello

      
    foresta sotterranea  
  

          
trait d’union
   
              
   

   

scambio    
o di preservazione proprietaria         

oggi e di domani
            
           

 
                
               
              
 

   
  
 
classica, presupposte dal costituzionalismo e interamente basate sui principi paradigmatici di un sistema


              
  
 
 
 
 
     
 Shoshone  Naturaleza cercada, Moreton in Marsch,

 
 
,
Michele Carducci

 44
             
   foresta
sotterranea


           


 