• CIAN. Revista de historia de las universidades

Editorial:
Dykinson
Fecha publicación:
2020-03-19
ISBN:
1139-6628

Últimos documentos

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  • Writing University History in Great Britain from the 1960s to the Present

    This article surveys the writing of university history in Great Britain since the 1960s, when its modern foundations were laid through the impact of the new social history. Specific features of the British case include the separate university histories of England and Scotland, which have conditioned the kind of history that can be written; the duopoly of Oxford and Cambridge before the nineteenth century; and the growth of a national system by the accretion of new strata, with their own distinct histories. The 1980s and 1990s were marked by large collective projects, at Oxford, Cambridge and Aberdeen. The tradition of writing histories of individual institutions (including Oxford and Cambridge colleges) has continued, though today on a more scholarly basis than in the past. Among the general themes investigated in recent years have been relations between universities and industry, the growth of state intervention and finance, universities and elites, links with the British empire, the development of disciplines and curricula, student life, the growth of women’s higher education, and university architecture. University historians have been influenced by the historiographical turn from social to cultural history. But while individual research flourishes, the history of universities has not become a formal subdiscipline in Britain, and the article considers why this is so. Keywords: Great Britain, Scotland, universities, history of universities, social history.

  • University History in the Czech Republic

    This text provides a historiographical overview of research into university history in the Bohemian lands. The authors point to the limited standing that the specialized discipline of university history has within Czech historiography, and summarize the methodological difficulties which prevent this discipline from gaining more respect. This is mainly due to it being too closely connected with anniversaries and, consequently, the uncertain existence of research teams. From a methodological perspective, this organizational problem results in the over-representation of institutional biographies in the portfolio of studies, while a greater proportion of the publications interpret university history in isolation from the rest of the society and are a priori success stories. It has only been over the past two decades that there have been changes in the discipline which have rapidly brought it up to speed in methodological terms with other, more traditional historical disciplines. The text also focuses on an overview of important, breakthrough works in the discipline and their place within socio-political changes, with special attention paid to the oldest Czech university in Prague, though there is also an examination of interesting trends in the research into the history of newer, provincial Czech universities. Keywords: university history, Bohemian lands, historiographical overview.

  • University History in the Low Countries

    The University history of the Low Countries is largely tributary of the different fate of the two halves of that region. In the South (present-day Belgium), in fact a unitary state from the 16th century onwards, the University of Louvain, initially founded for the whole Low Countries, was long the only institution of higher education. It was temporarily joined by that of Douai (later incorporated into France). In the North (the present-day Netherlands), universities and other institutions of higher education were only founded from the independence in the late 16th century onwards, but then in huge numbers, due to the confederal character of the Dutch Republic. In the revolutionary and Napoleonic era, the whole university landscape was thoroughly altered, and most of the institutions in the North suppressed. After 1815, new universities were founded on the same footing in both countries, then again temporarily united. Although the Netherlands and Belgium went their own way ever since their separation in 1830, both countries show a similar institutional evolution, in spite of the linguistic problems in the South. This is reflected in the cooperation between scholars on university history of the whole Low Countries region. In this article, I first sketch briefly the political evolution of the Low Countries and that of the university landscape and its institutional provisions, compulsory for a good comprehension of the university historiography. After a survey of the process of institutionalisation of university history in the European context ever since the 1980s, the (bi-)national associations and the renewal of the focus on the social dimension of university history and the history of science are briefly discussed. Throughout the article, the most important studies and memorial volumes of the last decades are quoted. Keywords: historiography, Low Countries, universities, colleges, Latin schools.

  • Historiography of the University. A New Field for an Old Topic in German Historical Scholarship

    There is no tradition nor genus of historiography within writing on university history in German historical research. In the Middle Ages there was no historiography of the institutionalized schools and the early universities. It began in the early modern period. From the beginning in the 17th century onwards, historiography of university mostly meant to tell about the own university and to underline its academic brilliance and, first of all, its political value for the government. In later 18th century the influence of enlightenment changed the argumentation and the politically enforced difference between academies and universities made the “identity” of universities more evident. Universities from then on did not understand themselves no longer primarily as instruments of government, but as places of scientific liberty and insofar partly of legal independence. There were conflicts and quarrels about in how far universities should just help to create educated officers for the government or open a field of independence for a “Freedom of science”. All conflict parties published their declarations, which can be used for the historiography of universities nowadays but did not intend to be understood as such. In the beginning of the 19th century the innovation of the modern university, founded by the ideas of Wilhelm of Humboldt in Prussia, and the promotion by the government, but as well the dependence from political support, set new conditions for the development of the universities and it made possible the beginning of an official historiography of university history. Until 1900 the discussion on the liberty of science and universities and their newly defined importance for the beginning nation-states as well as on the growing difference between historical and philosophical disciplines on the one hand, natural-scientific and even technical disciplines on the other hand became more and more important. Historiography of universities and their history was created, but from the beginning on focused on controversies. Rectorate-speeches became a new genus of historiography of universities and it was of great influence. It developed a comparative, modern approach on the history of universities, but was in the same time exploited as political argument in national politics and international conflicts and wartimes. Finally, the end of free discussion and academic discourse on the historiography of universities came with the beginning of the Nazi period in Germany. Modern learned and academic historiography of the history of universities from the middle of the 20th century onwards has got the chance to reestablish discussions on the history of universities from the Middle Ages to contemporary times and even in an international context, but did not yet find to a specific genus of historiography. Keywords: scholarship and politics, confessionalization of universities, conflict of disciplines, utility of scholarship, primacy of disciplines.

  • A Review of Recent Research on the History of Universities and Students in France

    In France, the active community of researchers studying education and young people usually focus their research on children and adolescents while research on education is limited to elementary schooling. Yet research on the history of French universities and the student population does exist. The higher education reform introduced after the 1968 student revolt swept away the early 19th century Napoleonic model of a university based on the primacy of specialized faculties (the humanities, science, medicine, law, pharmacy) but endowed with little power, a transformation that inspired some important research on the general history of French universities and also on the history of certain provincial universities. Numerous monographs describe the new, post-1968 establishments or mark the anniversary of an older, even medieval institution. Some promising research has also been undertaken on the history of students, a relatively new topic and one that will benefit from the creativity of dedicated research organizations. Keywords: history of faculties, history of universities, history of students, students’ associations, the higher education reform.

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